THE REFORMATION AND EDUCATION 201 spent some years in Geneva in intimate relations with Calvin, and was well acquainted with his educational plans. Imme- diately on the adoption of the Confession of Faith and the severance of the Church from Rome by the Act of the Scottish Parliament in 1560, he and four other ministers prepared the remarkable First Book of Discipline as the basis of the national Church polity. An essential part of the scheme was a system of educational institutions under Church control for all classes of the community, which for breadth and comprehensiveness has no peer among the educational proposals of this period. " Off necessitie we judge it,5' reported Knox and his fellow-com- missioners,* " that everie severall Churche have a Scholmaister appointed, suche a one as is able, at least, to teache Grammer and the Latine toung, yf the Toun be of any reputation. Yf it be Upaland, whaire the people convene to doctrine bot once in the weeke, then must eathir the Reidar or the Minister thair appointed, take cayre over the children and youth of the parische, to instruct them in thair first rudinxentis, and especiallie in the Catechisme, as we have it now translaited in the Booke of our Common Ordour, callit the Ordour of Geneva. And farther, we think it expedient, that in everie notable toun, and especiallie in the toun of the Superintendent, there be erected a Colledge, in whiche the Artis, at least Logick and Rethorick, togidder with the Toungis, be read by sufficient Maisteris, for whome honest stipendis must be appointed: as also provisioun for those that be poore, and be nocht able by them selfis, nor by thair freindis, to be sustened at letteris, especiallie suche as come frome Land- wart. Last, The great Schollis callit Universiteis, shall be repleanischit with those that be apt to learnyng; for this must be cairfullie provideit, that no fader, of what estait or conditioun that ever he be, use his children at his awin fantasie, especiallie in thair youth-heade; but all must be compelled to bring up thair children in learnyng and virtue. The riche and potent may not be permitted to suffer thair children to spend thair youth in vane idilnes, as heirtofore thei have done. But thei must be exhorted, and by the censure of the Churche compelled to dedicat thair sones, by goode exercise, to the proffit of the Churche and to the Commounwealthe; and that thei must do of thair awin expensses, becaus thei ar able. The children of * The Works of John Kttox> ii, 309 seq.